Babypedia

Abilities of a baby throughout the first year of his life. What should he be capable of?

Baby skills over 1 year old

Children’s playing skills over 1 year old

How to take care for the children's development?

How much should your baby sleep?

Tips to help your baby sleep

The order of appearance of teeth in babies

Reasons for the baby’s cry

Your actions if your baby cries:

  • Take your baby in your arms: this way you can eliminate the most common cause of crying
  • If the baby continues to cry, most likely he is hungry or wants to sleep
  • It also does not bother to check the baby's diaper - perhaps it is uncomfortable for him/her
  • Check if the baby has overheated
  • Trying to calm the baby, the mother should be calm - children often cry, reacting to the mother’s nervousness
  • If the previous steps were unsuccessful or if the child has a fever, use the Guarders® cautionary device kit

What categorically does not need to be done if the baby is crying?

In no case do not shake it, do not slap on the back or pope, do not raise your voice. Any of these actions can cause internal injury, which is known in literature under the name Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS).

Shaken baby syndrome is a serious brain injury caused by forcefully and violently shaking a baby. The SBS develops due to poorly developed baby neck muscles that cannot yet hold his head. Shaking the head leads to brain damage, hemorrhage in the retina. During a concussion, it is easy to damage facial bones, ribs, collarbones and shoulder blades.

NOT dangerous symptoms and conditions of the newborn

In the first month of life, the baby may experience conditions that are physiological, that is, they do not carry any danger, do not require treatment. These are the following states:

  • Toxic neonatal erythema is a rash that can occur in the first weeks of life. The rash is located mainly in the joints, on the stomach, face. Toxic erythema usually disappears 2-3 days after the onset, but can periodically appear for 4-6 weeks.
  • Breast engorgement - manifests in the first 3-4 days for all babies, regardless of gender, and can persist up to 2-3 months. Colostrum - may be released.

Neither toxic erythema, nor breast engorgement requires treatment!

Transitory conditions of neonates

The transitory conditions of neonates are due to the restructuring of the baby’s body from the prenatal period to life in the outside world. These conditions in most cases pass by themselves, requiring only control over their successful course and timely disappearance.

What are you not afraid of?

  • Physiological weight loss. During the first days of life a neonate may lose up to 10% of its initial body weight. Within 10 days (sometimes up to 14 days), weight is restored. The neonate is expected to regain the lost weight within the coming 2 weeks.
  • Physiologic oliguria - lack of urination in the first 12 hours
  • Uric acid crystals. During the first week after birth the excretion of uric acid with the urine is excessive. The urine color appears yellowish-red due to the presence of uric acid crystals and an orange - colored sediment in the diapers are seen.
  • Neonatal jaundice of newborns is a yellow color of the skin, sclera and mucous membranes due to an increase in the level of bilirubin in the blood, which appears no earlier than 24 hours after birth. Breastfeeding is extremely important to eliminate this condition.

Baby colic

  • Colic is common for babies and usually appears (not for all children) at 3-4 weeks of life and lasts mainly until 3-4 months. Their duration and frequency vary depending on the individual characteristics of the baby, his nutrition, daily routine, etc.
  • Features of the structure and functioning of the digestive system of newborns is the main cause of colic. Specific treatment is not required.
  • Anxiety, crying baby, turning bright red when crying, bloating - the most common manifestations of colic. The child usually calms down between attacks.

How to help a baby with baby colic?

Action guide:

  • correction of the mother’s diet: it is recommended to reduce or completely eliminate dairy products;
  • Lying in a prone position before feeding, vertical standing of the baby after feeding;
  • Massaging your baby (ask your doctor for guidelines), warmth on the abdomen also helps to displace gases and regulate intestinal transit, “colic dance”
  • evaluation of the baby’s nutrition / feeding diary by the doctor through the Guarders® Baby Pass® Pro app
  • drug treatment: on the recommendation of a doctor (anti colic baby drops), monitoring the effectiveness of treatment through the Guarders® Baby Pass® Pro application

Dangerous symptoms and conditions of the newborn

  • Fever
  • Fever is an increase in body temperature to more than 38 ºС if the measurement is rectal, and more than 37.5 ºС if the measurement is made in the armpit.

  • The child refuses to drink
  • There is lethargy and drowsiness, it is difficult to establish eye contact with the child (some pediatricians say about such patients “the child looks inward”)
  • If a child begins to develop any skin rash with an increase in body temperature
  • “Dangerous” cough:
    • Cough at any time up to 6 months.
    • The child has a night cough
    • The child has a cough before vomiting
    • Cough does not pass more than 3 weeks
    • Cough at any time up to 6 months.
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Any difficulty in breathing can be a life-threatening symptom, especially for children in their first year of life. How to understand that breathing is difficult in an infant: when inhaled, retraction along the edge of the costal arch is visible (the child, as it were, strongly draws in the stomach during breathing).

  • Vomiting, diarrhea. There was blood in the stool.
  • First-time rash, if the rash is not associated with understandable triggering factors.
  • Reduced frequency and volume of urination.
  • Pain. How to understand that a child is hurt?
    • The child cries, does not calm down.
    • Unmotivated excitability.
    • Anxiety (the child cannot find peace, a comfortable position)
  • Head injuries and loss of consciousness

What to do during dangerous symptoms?

Action guide for parents:

  • Fever

    Not every fever is a very bad sign, but with children under three years old it is better to play it safe:

    • undress the child then wait for 15 minutes before measuring temperature;
    • if the fever persists, do the urinalysis using the Guarders® MiniLab® kit, in case of abnormalities, contact your doctor through the Guarders® Baby Pass® app;
    • with a significant increase in temperature, it is very important to increase the natural heat transfer of the body. To do this, you need:
      • get the baby dressed in accordance with the air temperature;
      • give plenty of water to the baby;
      • cool and moisten the room;
      • you can wrap a towel with cold water in a towel and put it near the baby’s head, but at a distance of at least 5 centimeters;
    • If changes in the urine are detected using the Guarders® method (pay special attention to the ketone and nitrite values in the urine), you should immediately consult a doctor;
    • Analysis and examination of the child will help to understand the cause of the fever and quickly stabilize the condition of the child;
    • Medications to lower the temperature must be given as directed by a doctor! In case the temperature remains high, an ambulance must be called!
  • If your child has not urinated for more than 5 hours - immediately consult a doctor!
  • The child refuses to drink, the child vomits. There is lethargy and drowsiness, it is difficult to establish eye contact with the child (some pediatricians say about such patients “the child looks inward”)
    • Use the Guarders® cautionary device kit; pay particular attention to the ketones and the level of pH;
    • Contact your doctor immediately through the Guarders® Baby Pass® app
  • Coughing - quite a common symptom for children.
  • Due to the fact that it seems to be a common, “understandable” sign of an illness, parents often miss the moment of a timely visit to a doctor. Coughing can be caused not only by problems with the organs of the respiratory system. It can signal a malfunction in the cardiovascular or digestive systems. Even a sulfur plug in the ear can cause it. Until the cause is eliminated, the symptom will not disappear! With the symptoms of a “dangerous cough” (to tie up the transition - where the reasons for a dangerous cough are explained) - take the child to the doctor immediately!

  • Breathing difficulty
    • Calm the baby, hold it in your hands, put it on your chest or let it drink from a bottle;
    • It is extremely important to humidify the air in the room. Make sure that the air in the baby’s bedroom is cool at night;
    • You can quickly increase air humidity with the help of vapors coming from a hot shower or with a humidifier. To quickly moisten the baby's larynx, you can also use inhalations through a nebulizer;
    • Take your baby to the doctor immediately if you notice signs of difficulty in breathing, especially if his breathing is groaning or you hear wheezing or high-pitched whistling sound while breathing, even at a distance.
  • Vomiting, diarrhea.

    Diarrhea is not a serious problem if this happens, for example, once. If you observe it more than 3 times a day - this is a cause for alarm, especially if you notice the first signs of dehydration:

    • Reduced frequency and volume of urination. If your child has not urinated for 5 hours – contact a doctor immediately!
    • Dry skin and mucous membranes: there are less tears, saliva, the skin has become dry and unusually flabby.
    • Thirst.

    Use the Guarders® cautionary device kit, pay particular attention to the ketones and the level of pH! Urgently contact your doctor through the Guarders® Baby Pass® app!

  • Skin rashes
    • A skin rash is not always the norm. If the rash accompanies an increase in temperature, this is always an occasion for urgent medical attention.
    • There are children who are diagnosed with skin diseases (for example, atopic dermatitis or psoriasis), in which case parents are usually already trained on how to behave when the rash intensifies or the skin process worsens. Contact your doctor through the Guarders® Baby Pass® app to evaluate your child’s diet. Use the Guarders® cautionary device kit to help your doctor balance your baby’s diet according to the ketones and the level of pH indicators.
  • Pain

    Pain is always a symptom of alarm with which the human body signals a sort of danger. An intense and growing pain symptom is always an occasion to consult a specialist. Remember that a child’s “teething” could be the cause of the child’s moodiness and irritability, but in the vast majority of cases it does not cause a temperature increase above 37.5 *C (99,5 °F) or severe pain.

    • do not write off teething symptoms that appear;
    • use the Guarders® system to rule out the most common causes of pain;
    • contact your doctor through the Guarders® Baby Pass® app to evaluate the general condition of the baby and interpret the result of a urinalysis;
    • The doctor will assess the need for a visit to the hospital.
  • Head injuries and loss of consciousness
    • If the child fell from a certain height (even if you did not see exactly what he hit) or he hit his head - visit the doctor immediately!
    • Not every head injury can pass without a trace, and, importantly, you may not see the internal damages that occurred during the injury.
    • An episode of loss of consciousness, 'limp' or cramps are always an occasion to see a doctor immediately.

Nutrition for children. Rules for the introduction of complementary foods

How often to feed a baby who is breastfeeding?

The WHO/UNICEF recommends feeding on demand, in which the child independently determines the frequency, duration of feeding and the amount of sucked milk.

What is complementary feeding?

Complementary feeding is any food that is introduced into the baby’s diet as an addition to breast milk or a formula.

Why do babies need complementary feeding?

The introduction of complementary foods is necessary to satisfy the basic nutritional needs of the child, primarily in energy, proteins, micronutrients, and to ensure a gradual transition to the diet of ordinary family nutrition.

What are the signs of a child’s readiness for the introduction of complementary foods?

  • Baby holds his head well, sits almost without support (in the highchair)
  • opens his mouth when mom brings a spoon with food;
  • turns away from a spoon with food, if not hungry;
  • closes the mouth with a spoon in the mouth;
  • holds food in the mouth, and then swallows, and does not push and spit it out

The introduction of complementary foods is recommended no earlier than 6 months of age.

Mistakes when introducing complementary foods

Schedule for introduction of complementary foods

The schedule for the introduction of complementary foods (products, recommended volume, doses) is always in touch in the Guarders® Baby Pass® application for parents (switch to downloading the program)

Basic requirements for the introduction of complementary foods:

  • Timeliness of introduction
  • Nutritional adequacy
  • Sufficiency in multiplicity and quantity of food
  • Food safety

What is the density of complementary foods?

The optimal growth, development and functional maturation of the baby depends on the adequate intake of more than 50 macro- and micronutrients

What products are forbidden for children up to 3 years’ old

  • Canned food
  • Nuts
  • Mushrooms (mushroom soup can be given to children over 7 years)
  • Citrus
  • Chocolate, waffles, gingerbread cookies, butter, biscuits
  • Smoked meats
  • Soups on meat broth, chicken soup is given to children over 2 years’ old
  • Sausages
  • Cocoa and coffee
  • River fish
  • Seafood (squid, crabs, caviar)
  • Mayonnaise based sauces
  • Fatty pork
  • Fried food

The consequences of unsustainable feeding of children

  • the introduction of complementary foods earlier than 4 months dramatically increases the risk of obesity in children by the age of 3 years;
  • early introduction of formula (especially in the first months of a child’s life) is a trigger for the development of type 1 diabetes;
  • early introduction of formula and/or complementary foods is a trigger for the development of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, food allergies, bronchial asthma.

How to control the baby’s nutrition to prevent the development of diseases?

Use the integrated system Guarders®:

  • Your doctor will always be able to monitor the diary of baby’s nutrition and physical development using the Guarders® Baby Pass® Pro mobile application and provide timely corrections;
  • You can always see at home how the body reacts to the introduction of new products and/or perceives formula, using Guarders® cautionary device kit.

Vaccination

What is vaccination?

Mostly vaccines are part of microorganisms or products of their vital functions. When vaccines are introduced into a child’s body, they cannot cause an infectious disease, but they provide protection (antibodies and special cells).

What happens when vaccines are introduced into the body?

With the introduction of vaccines, the child’s body “gets acquainted” with the pathogens of infection and “learns” how to deal with them. Vaccinations received in childhood create the basis of immunity against individual infections for life.

What happens when a baby’s body encounters an infection that he/she is vaccinated against?

When the body meets an infectious agent, the available protection after vaccination prevents the development of the disease or reduce the severity of its course.

Why are children revaccinated?

Over time, the effect of some vaccinations weakens. Therefore, after a certain period of time, in order to stimulate the immune system, the vaccination must be repeated (do revaccination).

Is vaccination safe?

The introduction of any vaccination causes response of the organism, which sometimes has clinical manifestations. These are the so-called normal, or normal, vaccine reactions. A vaccine reaction is an individual's response to the inherent properties of the vaccine, even when the vaccine has been prepared, handled and administered correctly. Such reactions are short-term and does not require treatment.

What are the vaccine reactions?

  • Local reactions are thickening, redness, and sometimes mild soreness at the injection site. It develops immediately after administration and passes within 1-4 days;
  • The general normal reaction is manifested by an increase in temperature (up to 99,5- 101,3 °F /37.5-38.5 С), sometimes malaise, sleep and appetite disturbances,
  • Children vaccinated with live vaccines may have symptoms the symptoms of those organs and systems that are affected by the corresponding infection. This is also considered a normal reaction. Such manifestations occur on the 5-12th day after vaccination.

Are vaccines safe?

Modern vaccines are highly effective and safe medicine. Vaccines are carefully monitored to international standards.

Can a vaccinated child get sick?

  • No vaccine gives a 100% guarantee that a child who is vaccinated will not get sick. However, this is extremely rare.
  • If the vaccinated child gets sick, then the infection proceeds in a mild form, without complications and death.

What is a national vaccination schedule?

Each country has its own national childhood immunization schedule.

This is a compulsory vaccination scheme for children and adults at a certain age to fully protect a person from dangerous infections. Individual vaccination schedule for your child with dates and a reminder function you can find in the Guarders® Baby Pass application for parents.